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Viimati täiendatud: 19.08.2019

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Institutsioonid ja ametid



  • Schramm, Lucas. Solidarity : from the heart or by force? : the failed German leadership in the EU’s refugee and migrant crisis / EUI Working Papers, 2019.
    In 2015 and 2016, the European Union (EU) and (some of) its member states faced a very high number of asylum-seekers. Germany, which particularly was affected by this inflow, sought to ‘europeanise’ the phenomenon and to distribute the loads more evenly across the EU – but met major resistance. Contrarily to the widely held view that Germany, in recent years, had shaped European politics, it largely failed with its main policy proposals in the refugee and migrant crisis. To uncover the reasons, this contribution applies an analytical framework of political leadership and post-functionalist theory. Based on the latest academic research, relevant newspaper articles and self-conducted expert interviews, it is argued that there might have been supply of but not sufficient demand for successful German political leadership. The largely failed German leadership is illustrated by two characteristics: first, the setting-up and poor implementation of a European relocation mechanism for refugees; and second, a course correction with regards to its policy proposals by the German government itself in the course of the crisis.
  • The global compact on refugees: Strengthening international cooperation to ease the plight of refugees in the world / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2019.
    Recent large-scale flows of refugees and migrants have brought to the world’s attention more forcefully than ever the plight of persons who are forced to flee their homes because of war, insecurity or persecution. They have also exposed how ill-prepared the international community has been to deal with this challenge and how uneven the distribution of the burden of caring for such people has been among countries. In 2016, to enhance preparedness for refugee crises, improve the situation of refugees and relieve the burden on host societies, the United Nations (UN) member states convened in New York and adopted a declaration paving the way for a non-binding international compact on refugees. They annexed to this declaration a comprehensive refugee response framework that spelled out a series of short- and longer-term measures to address refugee crises. The framework has been applied in several pilot countries and the lessons learnt fed into a global compact on refugees. The compact was drafted by the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) following broad consultations with various stakeholders, and its definitive version was adopted by the UN General Assembly with a large majority on 17 December 2018. The global compact focuses on international-, regional- and national-level mechanisms for achieving a fairer distribution of the responsibilities related to refugees, and on areas where action can be improved. It has been criticised, among other things, for its non-binding character and for excluding victims of natural disasters from its scope. This is an updated edition of a Briefing published in June 2018.


  • Recent migration flows to the EU / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2018.
    This infographic aimed to present the latest available data on migrant flows to the EU in the year 2017. It covered the detection of illegal crossings on the EU’s external borders, numbers of deaths of migrants on those crossings, the number of asylum applications in EU Member States and their decisions on those applications.
  • Bräuninger, Dieter. Reform of the Common European Asylum System: A difficult undertaking / Deutsche Bank Research: EU Monitor, 2018.
    In the spring of 2018 the EU institutions were about to decide on major new rules regarding the reception and the treatment of asylum applicants as well as their allocation among member states. The trigger for the intended reforms related to the current regulatory framework’s shortcomings that emerged during the refugee crisis: an uneven sharing of responsibilities for asylum procedures and massive irregular migration within the EU. However, the Dublin procedure recast has stalled, as several member states strictly refuse the planned corrective mechanism for a fair sharing of responsibility. The prospects seemed to be more favourable with regard to the harmonisation of the asylum procedures and conditions.
  • Scazzieri, Luigi. To manage migration, the EU needs to rethink its neighbourhood policy / Centre for European Reform, 2018.
    The main thrust of the EU’s response to the migration crisis has been to enlist the co-operation of third countries in an attempt to better control its own borders. This approach has been successful in reducing the number of arrivals to 205,000 in 2017, from 1.8 million in 2015. However, it had come at a high human cost. Migrants’ human rights had been abused on route, especially in Libya where they were subject to imprisonment and violence, and sometimes even sold as slaves. Migration cannot be managed by the EU alone and its current approach would become increasingly difficult to sustain. Managing migration was a long-term endeavour that required much deeper co-operation with countries to Europe’s south, within the framework of a renewed neighbourhood policy that provided far greater access to European markets. By rethinking its approach to the southern neighbourhood, the EU would not only be able to move towards a more humane and effective way of managing migration, but also foster economic growth and political stability in a region that was vital to Europe’s security.


  • Bauböck, Rainer ; Tripkovic, Milena. The integration of migrants and refugees : an EUI forum on migration, citizenship and demography / Florence : European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, 2017.
    This book addresses the challenges that the current migration and refugee crisis poses to the traditional integration mechanisms and processes employed by European countries. These challenges arise from the unprecedented number of migrants and refugees that have recently entered Europe; the mostly unregulated and uncontrolled nature of this new immigration; the burden that this puts on those European countries that have previously had very little experience with immigration and integration; the desire of immigrants and refugees to settle in specific countries; the security concerns that have arisen in the aftermath of terrorist attacks. The book explores the medium and long-term impact of these and other challenges on the debate and measurement of the success of immigrant integration. It covers four aspects of integration: (I) citizenship and legal statuses, (II) education, (III) labor market integration, (IV) cultural integration.
  • Parkes, Roderick. Nobody move! Myths of the EU migration crisis / European Union Institute for Security Studies: Chaillot Papers, 2017.
    This Chaillot Paper contextualises the dilemmas facing EU policymakers as Europe experienced an unprecedented influx of migrants and refugees in 2015-2016. Analysing and comparing the differing perspectives of external experts and internal practitioners, it examines how the EU’s enlargement, neighbourhood and development policies evolved in response to the migration crisis.


  • Fasani, Francesco. Refugees and Economic Migrants: Facts, policies and challenges  / VOX, 2016.
    This eBook offers a brief summary of what economists have learnt about migration in several crucial areas of policymaking, and identifies most of the important questions that still remain to be answered  (e-raamatu allalaadimiseks vajalik eelnev registreerimine portaali kasutajaks).
  • Guild, Elspeth ; Carrera, Sergio. Rethinking asylum distribution in the EU: Shall we start with the facts? / CEPS Commentary, 2016.
  • King, Russell ; Lulle, Aija. Research on migration. Facing realities and maximising opportunities : a policy review.- Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016.
  • Ktistakis,Yannis. Protecting migrants under the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter (2nd edition) / updated by Evgenia Giakoumopoulou. – Report by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, 2016.
    Ensuring implementation of relevant commitments under the European Convention on Human Rights, whilst managing overwhelming numbers of refugees and migrants, represents today a significant challenge for all member States of the Council of Europe. This handbook, produced by the Directorate General of Human Rights and Rule of Law, is a practical tool for legal professionals from Council of Europe member states who wish to strengthen their skills in applying the European Convention on Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights in their daily work.
  • Legrain Philippe. Refugees work: investment that yields economic dividends / Tent Foundation ; Open Political Economy Network, 2016.
  • Lehne, Stefan. Upgrading the EU’s Migration Partnerships / Carnegie Europe, 2016.
  • Malmersjo, Gertrud ; Remac, Milan. Combatting migrant smuggling into the EU / Euroopa Parlament, briifing, 2016.
  • Mandl, Christian. Die Kosten von “Nicht-Schengen”. Wirtschaftliche Auswirkungen neuer Grenzen in Europa / Österreichische Gesellschaft für Europapolitik, 2016.
  • Pascouau, Yves. EU migration policies after the US elections: pushing the limits? / European Policy Centre, 2016.
  • Research on migration. Facing realities and maximising opportunities : a policy review / Teadusuuringute ja innovatsiooni peadirektoraat (Euroopa Komisjon), 2016.
    This policy review synthesises the main findings from several European projects dealing with migration. Where possible, these findings are matched, or occasionally contrasted, with key insights from the wider research literature on migration and with policy documents. An introductory chapter sets the scene with regard to the ongoing European debate on migration and gives some basic facts and figures. Chapter 2, the first of three substantive chapters, presents research related to the two-way interaction between policies and flows, with a focus on regular migration. Chapter 3 tackles the complex issue of migrants’ integration from a variety of perspectives – economic, social, cultural, spatial and political. Chapter 4 explores the migration – development nexus, and specifically the potential of migration for stimulating development in migrants’ countries of origin. A concluding chapter highlights key findings and policy implications. The title of this report ‘Migration: Facing Realities and Maximising Opportunities’ indicates its main narrative arc. The challenges and dilemmas posed by migration have to be faced in a way which is both principled and pragmatic. Wherever and whenever possible, these challenges and realities should be ‘turned’ into a scenario where the potential benefits of migration are maximised for all actors concerned.
  • Time for Europe to get migrant integration right / Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, 2016.
    The arrival of over one million people seeking protection in our continent in recent months has profoundly shaken Europe and found European governments unprepared to face up to the challenge of providing adequate reception. Preoccupied with short-term imperatives, European governments have lost sight of more long-term challenges posed by these arrivals. Little, if any, significant debate about how to promote the successful integration of these migrants into their new host societies has taken place. With this paper, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights fills this gap and provides guidance to governments and parliaments on the design and implementation of successful integration policies. In particular, he presents the international legal standards which govern this field and sets forth a number of recommendations to facilitate the integration of migrants, with a focus on family reunification, residence rights, language and integration courses, access to the labour market and quality education, as well as protection from discrimination.
  • Vimont, Pierre. Migration in Europe: Bridging the Solidarity Gap / Carnegie Europe, 2016.


Vaata ka:

Riigikogu väljaanded. Teemalehed:

  • Eesti rahvastikuolukord rändekriisi järel (nr 2, 30. jaanuar 2019)
  • Muudatused migrantide sotsiaalsetes tagatistes (nr. 8, 18. aprill 2016)
  • Varjupaigaõigus ja Euroopa Liit (nr 7, 29. mai 2015)
  • Rahvusvahelise kaitse taotlused Euroopa Liidus (nr 12, 20. oktoober 2015)


Euroopa Parlamendi mõttekoja koostatud ülevaated rändeteemalistest väljaannetest:


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