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- Espa, Ilaria. Climate, energy and trade in EU–China relations: synergy or conflict? // China-EU Law Journal (2018) nr 1, lk.57-80.
This article aims at assessing the state of Sino–European energy relations in light of the common challenges they face in the areas of energy security and sustainability, while providing some insight on whether international trade rules are well-equipped to encourage and facilitate cooperation, on the one hand, and defuse potential conflicts, on the other, between China and the EU. Section 1 introduces the topic. Section 2 gives an account of the climate and energy profiles of both China and the EU with a view to highlighting their shared interests in the field and the potential for synergies in the areas of energy security and energy sustainability. Section 3 illustrates how energy cooperation between China and the EU has evolved over the years and identifies its main strengths and weaknesses. Section 4 discusses the role that international trade rules can play in fostering China–EU energy cooperation and provides a case study on the how World Trade Organization (WTO) rules on export restrictions could enhance energy security. This is followed by some conclusions on the potential of the WTO system to advance Sino–EU energy relations and, more generally, global energy governance. (Springer)
- Goron, Coraline. Fighting against climate change and for fair trade: finding the EU’s interest in the solar panels dispute with China // China-EU Law Journal (2018) nr. 1, lk. 103-125.
The dispute between the EU and China regarding the trade in solar panels has been commonly explained in terms of power politics, whereby a mercantile China exploited European internal divisions to its advantage. But the trade defence case was also criticized for running against European climate policy goals. To which extent does this case illustrate a normative conflict between trade and the environment? The article replaces the dispute in the context of the trade defence procedures, according to which the EU had to decide, first, whether China’s subsidization of its PV industry was illegal, and second, whether Europe’s climate policies warranted against imposing trade defence duties. It finds that, in this case, the familiar competition between divergent European industrial interests was made worse by an important normative cleavage amongst European decision-makers, regarding the appropriate way to achieve global climate change policy goals. Simply applying the law did not settle the dispute. Instead, it plastered a political compromise emerged from a shift in the political narrative of the dispute, from emphasizing competition to emphasizing interdependence, pushing the Commission into a political compromise with China. (Springer open access)
- Hooijmaaijers, Bas. China’s rise in Africa and the response of the EU: a theoretical analysis of the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation policy initiative // Journal of European Integration (2018) nr. 4, lk. 443-460.
This article explores and explains the drivers of the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative. In order to do so a qualitative assessment was made of how well the various hypotheses flowing from three candidate theories neorealism, institutionalism and the bureaucratic politics model (BPM) fit this policy initiative. It specifically tests them across three distinct stages of the policy cycle, including issue identification, decision-making and policy implementation. Cutting the dependent variable into policy stages allows us to see if the independent variables truly are powerful. This study demonstrates that institutionalism contributes to a better understanding of every distinct stage of the policy process regarding the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative. Aspects of neorealism illuminate some stages of the policy process as well, while BPM is only applicable to a limited degree. (Taylor & Francis)
- Karkanis, Dimitrios. EU-China Trade: Geography and Institutions from 2001 to 2015 // Journal of Economic Integration (2018) nr. 1, lk. 1158-1175.
This paper applies a gravity model to assess the factors underlying trade between the European Union and China separately for the exports and imports from 2001 to 2015. The two models are estimated for the 28 European Union countries. A panel data analysis aims to capture the effect of time on trade flows in view of the dynamic process of economic integration in the EU and the global financial crisis. The results suggest that the insularity and landlocked nature of several European Union member states are beneficial for bilateral trade flows. The entry of the European countries into the European Union, their alignment under a common monetary policy in the Eurozone environment, and the subsequent gradual adoption of a common currency have brought a higher degree of interconnectivity between the member states and have also made a positive contribution to European Union–China bilateral trade expansion. (ProQuest)
- Musiałkowska, Ida ; Dąbrowski, Marcin. EU-China Regional Policy Dialogue: Unpacking the Mechanisms of an Unlikely Policy Transfer // Europe-Asia studies (2018) nr. 10, lk. 1689-1711.
This article investigates EU-China dialogue on regional policy, a puzzling exercise in policy transfer because such policy is by its nature inward-oriented and the intricacies of regional development imply uncertainty about its effects in different contexts. The article sheds light on the reasons of both sides for engaging in this unlikely policy learning effort and identifies its actors and mechanisms. It also critically assesses this process, stressing its one-way nature and the active role of the EU as a 'policy-sender', in contrast to most policy transfer literature citing demands by the policy-recipient as the predominant reason to engage in such cooperation. (Taylor & Francis open access)
- Pepermans, Astrid. The Huawei Case and What It Reveals About Europe’s Trade Policy // European Foreign Affairs Review (2016) nr. 4, lk. 539-557.
In 2003, China was included among the European Union (EU)’s six strategic partners. However, it soon became clear that China is not only a partner, but also a serious economic competitor for the EU. This article focuses on the Sino-European telecom conflict, which took place between 2010 and 2014, and in which the European Commission was cornered by China’s tactical use of economic diplomacy. This case shows that the European Member States are unable to pull together and to create a unified policy towards China. The Chinese and their team of large national companies have been eager to exploit this European weakness. It seems that, certainly in this case, competition has triumphed over cooperation. (Kluwer Law Online Journals)
- Sarsenbayev, Madi ; Véron, Nicolas. European versus American Perspectives on the Belt and Road Initiative // China & World Economy (2020), nr 2, lk 84-112. China has started to deploy its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in the European Union (EU), and the EU in turn has regional and global interests that intersect with the BRI's scope. Subject to future adjustments of China's BRI strategy, the initiative's potential contribution to the EU requirements for infrastructure development could be significant, even though its modalities in the EU are inevitably different from those in countries that are poorer or have more difficult financial market access. The EU's attitude to the BRI, however, has not yet fully coalesced. Despite superficial similarities in public discourses, the EU has a profoundly distinct perspective from that of the US on the BRI, and more generally on the rise of China and its growing global influence. For the EU, the BRI generates challenges but also potential benefits. The EU should improve its ability to welcome sensible BRI projects, including through the adoption of greater reform of screening frameworks for foreign direct investment. More generally, the EU should enhance its ability to define policies independent of the US on China and the challenges resulting from China's rise. China should also make further efforts to foster a constructive relationship with the EU. (Wiley Online Library)
Tsibulina, Anna. One Belt-One Road Initiative in the EU: Warm Welcome or Thin Smile? // SSRN (2019).Yu, Jie. The belt and road initiative: domestic interests, bureaucratic politics and the EU-China relations // Asia Europe Journal (2018) nr. 3, lk. 223-236.
The Chinese economic influence is growing in the world. There are more and more countries which are getting involved in the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the European countries are not an exception. The BRI is not an integration project per se as it’s declared to be about infrastructure development and it is open for all the interested countries. It might be complicated for the EU institutions to control or guide economic cooperation of its Member States in the framework of BRI. The EU has exclusive competence in trade policy but not in investment field. The EU gives a rather guarded welcome to the BRI leaving much room for interpretation of its long-term policy regarding fulfillment of EU-China economic cooperation.
- This article explores the linkages between domestic affairs and foreign policies in China in fulfilling its grand ambition of Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). It examines the complexities in decision-making process of “BRI” inside Beijing’s administration. It departs from the most existing literature on BRI in Europe, which focus upon the geo-economic and geo-political impacts of the BRI. Instead, it adopts an “inside-out” approach by examining the actual policy process with a primary focus to individual actors such as the Party, the government department and the state-owned enterprises as well as individual academics. It also disentangles the intricate relations amongst the Party, the key decision-making institutions and the policy execution entities in determining the final outcome of the BRI. It will finally reflect the extent to which Beijing’s bureaucratic complexities have impacted upon the EU and its member states’ willingness in collaborating or in formally endorsing China’s BRI. (Springer open access)
- Yu, Kaho. Energy cooperation in the Belt and Road Initiative: EU experience of the Trans-European Networks for Energy // Asia Europe Journal (2018) nr. 16, lk. 251–265.
This paper examines energy cooperation within the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) with reference to the European Union’s experience of the Trans-European Network for Energy (TEN-E) in addressing various policy challenges, including market competitiveness, climate change and the security of supply through energy infrastructure networks. As a development framework with strong geo-political and geo-economical dimensions, the BRI aims to promote interconnectivity and cooperation in infrastructure, policy, trade, finance and culture among Eurasian countries. The implementation of the BRI is expected to involve numerous investments as well as infrastructure construction and industrial integration in the energy sector. The EU experience in creating an energy network has indicated a clear synergy between infrastructure networks and the market. In the 1990s, TEN-E was developed to create an integrated energy market, reinforce economic and social cohesion, and connect peripheral regions. Through an analysis of the EU experience, this paper argues that the BRI foresees turning China’s energy cooperation in Eurasia into an integrated and multilateral strategy. While energy infrastructure networks could contribute to achieving the BRI’s objectives, possible obstacles exist in the creation of those networks in the BRI, including asymmetric policy priorities, financing challenges and the lack of a multilateral legal framework. (Springer)
- Zeng, Jinghan. Does Europe Matter? The Role of Europe in Chinese Narratives of ‘One Belt One Road’ and ‘New Type of Great Power Relations’ // Journal of Common Market Studies (2017) nr. 5, lk 1162-1176. The rise of China as a global power has significantly reshaped its global ambition. Under the leadership of Chinese president Xi Jinping, China has proposed a series of diplomatic initiatives – most notably ‘new type of great power relations’ and ‘one belt one road’ – in order to shift the international order in its favour. Does Europe matter in China's major initiatives under the leadership of Xi Jinping? How does Europe (and the EU) fit into China's strategic narratives? This article aims to address these questions by analyzing Chinese scholarly writings and conducting interviews in China. It also explores the evolution process of China's strategic narratives with a focus on the gradual appearances of Europe. This article argues that the EU/Europe is a second order concern for China, and Europe only plays a marginalized role in China's policy discussion. Appreciation of the internal dynamics of China is essential for Europe to develop a more accurate understanding of EU–China relations. (Wiley Online Library)