- Dugiel, Wanda ; Mikołajek-Gocejna, Magdalena. The European Union’s Trade and COVID-19 // Studia Europejskie (Warszawa) (2021) nr. 4, lk.75-91.
The article analyzes the course of the unprecedented economic crisis in the last century caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic affects all spheres of economic life, causing a huge collapse in international trade, a collapse in industrial production, and a reduction in the infl ow of services and foreign investments. The aim of the article is to analyze the causes and the counteraction of the European Union’s breakdown in international trade turnover in 2020. The analysis uses a qualitative and quantitative method consisting in a review of international trade fi gures, statistics from Eurostat, World Trade Organization, IMF, and World Bank. The analysis examines the depth of the collapse of international trade, the most important entities in trade, including the European Union. The results of the economic analysis allow understanding the activities of the European Union institutions in the field of counteracting the negative effects... (DOAJ)
- Genschel, Philipp ; Jachtenfuchs, Markus. Postfunctionalism reversed: solidarity and rebordering during the COVID-19 pandemic // Journal of European Public Policy (2021) nr. 3, lk. 350-369.
Postfunctionalism posits a tradeoff between the functional scale of governance and the territorial scope of community: functional scale is large and transnational for efficiency reasons; community is small-scale and (sub-)national for reasons of social trust and collective identification. COVID-19 has turned this tradeoff upside down: it has shrunk functional scale to the (sub-)national level in the name of security, while lifting expectations of community to the grand transnational scale in the name of solidarity. This reversal of scales has resulted in a rapid rebordering of the Single Market and the Schengen area on the one hand, and a significant debordering of fiscal risk and burden sharing on the other. We reconstruct the evolution of this double-movement from January to August 2020, contrast it to historical trends in the scale-community tradeoff of European integration, and discuss implications for postfunctionalist theory. (Taylor & Francis Journals Online)
- Hadjimichalis, Costis. An uncertain future for the post-Brexit, post-COVID-19 European Union // European urban and regional studies (2021) nr. 1, lk.8-13
Nowadays, the foundation pillars of European unification, namely solidarity and democracy, are under serious threat, perhaps more serious than that from the 2008 economic crisis, Brexit, the migration crisis and COVID-19 combined. As happened in the past, space and geography are again at the forefront asking for interpretations. A once progressive academic field such as urban and regional research is due now to regain its progressive reflexes together with broader political concerns about the future of the European Union (EU). (Sage Journals)
- Bergner, S. The EU’s global health policy in times of Covid-19: challenges and prospects // The European Journal of Public Health (2020).
The Covid-19 crisis has laid bare weaknesses in the capacity of the European Union (EU) to act as a global health player. Most of those challenges have existed prior to the pandemic and are linked to a limited implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) - the global agenda acknowledging interconnections between different policy fields. Despite the EU's commitment to implement the Agenda 2030 in its internal and external policies, there is a lack of visibility and sufficient reference to the SDGs on a strategic level as well as in the EU's actions and partnerships in global health. The Union has shown during the Covid-19 pandemic that it is a relevant global health actor; however, there seems to be a lack of strategic visions and resources. The poster aims to illustrate on the one hand the weaknesses and challenges of the EU global health policies in times of Covid-19 and beyond. On the other hand, it identifies advantages of the EU in the field of global health. (Free E- Journals, Free Medical Journals, Oxford University Press Journals)
- Botta, Alberto ; Caverzasi, Eugenio ; Russo, Alberto. Fighting the COVID-19 Crisis: Debt Monétisation and EU Recovery Bonds // Intereconomics (2020) nr. 4, lk. 239–244.
This paper highlights some peculiar characteristics of the economic crisis induced by the spread of COVID-19. It suggests two intertwined policy measures in order to tackle the emergency phase of the crisis and to support the economy in the subsequent recovery phase. The proposed short-term policy measures offer policy responses in the event of a second wave of coronavirus infections in the coming months. In the aftermath of the emergency phase, the current proposal puts forward the implementation of a massive EU-wide recovery plan addressing the long-lasting technological and environmental challenges of these years, which will be financed by European institutions through the issuance of European Pandemic Recovery Bonds. (Open access)
- Celi, Giuseppe ; Guarascio, Dario ; Simonazzi, Annamaria. A fragile and divided European Union meets Covid-19: further disintegration or ‘Hamiltonian moment’? / Journal of Industrial and Business Economics (2020).
Despite being symmetric in its very nature, the Covid-19 shock is affecting European economies in a very asymmetric way, threatening to deepen the divide between core and peripheral countries even more. It is not Covid-19 itself, however, but the contradictions within the EU’s growth model and institutional architecture that would be to blame for such an outcome. The dramatic impact of the economic crisis brought on by the pandemic and the threat that it poses to Eurozone survival seem to have forced a reluctant Germany into action: a minor step, but an important signal. This note analyses the crossroads currently facing Europe—the risk of disintegration vis-a-vis the opportunity for a ‘Hamiltonian moment’—discussing possible future scenarios in the light of past developments. (Open access)
- Clemens, Timo ; Brand, Helmut. Will COVID-19 lead to a major change of the EU Public Health mandate? A renewed approach to EU’s role is needed // European Journal of Public Health (2020) nr 4, lk.624-625.
These days we see the first assessments on the EU’s role as crisis manager. Commentators differ in their view whether the EU has failed, been late or has finally come to a substantial response. We should bear in mind that there is a limited EU role in crisis response specifically and for Public Health in general. With regard to the first, Member States (MS) and even sub-national levels are the first and key crisis managers addressing the responses to the pandemic. Moreover, despite some responsibilities and institutions for supporting the immediate crisis response (e.g. ECDC, Early Warning & Response System, Health Security Committee, Decision on serious cross-border threats), the EU role is with coordination, sharing information and building supporting structures for MS to be prepared better for an emergency response. With regard to Public Health in general, the EU has a narrow mandate with limited law-making powers. (Free E- Journals, Free Medical Journals, Oxford University Press Journals)
- Dermine, Paul ; Markakis, Menelaos, The EU Fiscal, Economic and Monetary Policy Response to the COVID-19 Crisis // EU Law Live, Weekend Edition (2020) nr 11, lk. 7-14.
In this contribution, we assess the main measures, already taken or currently contemplated by the EU, in reaction to the COVID-19 crisis to mitigate its impact on Eurozone economies. The discussion begins with the recent monetary policy decisions taken by the ECB (1). The focus then shifts to the strategy deployed on the economic and fiscal side. We analyze (2) the coordination of national fiscal responses and their accommodation under the rules of the Stability and Growth Pact, (3) the role of the European Stability Mechanism, and (4) joint debt instruments.
Engelen, Klaus C. Europe's Covid-19 Battle // International Economy (2020) nr 2, lk. 12-15.
The article focuses on efforts of Europe against the COVID-19 pandemic. Topics discussed include unprecedented Covid-19 lockdown in Germany, German Chancellor Angela Merkel's success as a crisis manager during the pandemic and Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte and Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez put the stakes of coping with the coronavirus pandemic even higher. Business Source Complete (EBSCO)
- European Journal of Risk Regulation. Special Issue: Taming COVID-19 By Regulation
COVID-19 represents not only one of the greatest natural and economic disasters in human history, but also a rich case study of government’s emergency response. As such, it is a test bed for risk research and regulatory theories in a world increasingly shaped by transboundary, uncertain manufactured and natural risks.
While it is obviously too early to come to definitive conclusions, the contributions collected – in record-time – in this special issue of the European Journal of Risk Regulation attempt at providing an initial analysis of the surprisingly uncoordinated, at times unscientific, response to an essentially foreseeable event like a novel coronavirus (nCoV) in a geopolitically shattered world.
- Fernandes, Nuno. Economic Effects of Coronavirus Outbreak (COVID-19) on the World Economy // SSRN, 2020.
This report discusses the economic impact of the Coronavirus/COVID-19 crisis across industries, and countries. It also provides estimates of the potential global economic costs of COVID-19, and the GDP growth of different countries. The current draft includes estimates for 30 countries, under different scenarios.
- Goniewicz, Krzysztof et al. Current Response and Management Decisions of the European Union to the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Review // Sustainability (2020)
COVID-19 has proven to be a formidable challenge for many countries in the European Union to manage effectively. The European Union has implemented numerous strategies to face emerging issues. Member States have adopted measures such as the closure of borders and significant limitations on the mobility of people to mitigate the spread of the virus. An unprecedented crisis coordination effort between Member States has facilitated the ability to purchase equipment, personal protective equipment, and other medical supplies. (DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals)
- Greer, Scott ; de Ruijter, Anniek. EU health law and policy in and after the COVID-19 crisis // European Journal of Public Health (2020) nr. 4, lk. 623–624.
The very first shock of COVID-19 might beover, but the crisis continues. We have already learned much about what the European Union can and cannot do to help its Member States and peoples manage the crisis—and what it might be able to do better. The EU’s contribution to fighting COVID-19 was initially limited because member states wanted it so. From a treaty article on public health that carefully limits EU competencies, to legislation that avoids authorizing forceful EU action, to a budget that puts little money into health and has no health emergencies line at all, the EU’s member states have made it clear that they want the EU to be a limited actor. It can meet zoonoses with forceful action, but once they become human diseases the EU is hamstrung. Public health is a strange place to rein in European integration, for everything we know about the movement of diseases, animals and people show that there already is European public health. COVID-19 exposes the tension between tight social, economic and political integration and deliberately weak EU health powers. The Member States must collectively manage a long and difficult shared crisis. What can they do with each other through the EU?We focus on policy ideas that are within broad EU health policy, though social and economic policy responses will be crucial to managing the pandemic and its effects. Our ideas use existing EU legal bases (Article 168 TFEU) and administrative forms that can be quickly adapted to this crisis. (Free E- Journals, Free Medical Journals, Oxford University Press Journals)
- Heimberger, Philipp. Potential Output, EU Fiscal Surveillance and the COVID-19 Shock // Intereconomics (2020) nr. 3, lk. 167-174.
This paper discusses how the technical foundations of the EU’s fiscal rules constrain the fiscal space in EU countries in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We review the evidence on how estimates of potential output, which are at the heart of essential control indicators in EU fiscal surveillance, were revised in the ten years running up to the COVID-19 pandemic, and how these revisions affected the fiscal stance of EU countries. We provide first evidence for downward revisions in the European Commission’s potential output estimates against the background of the COVID-19 shock across the EU27 countries, and we assess the potential consequences in terms of fiscal space. According to our results, one additional percentage point in predicted losses of actual output is associated with a loss in potential output of about 0.6 percentage points. Given the importance of model-based estimates in the EU’s fiscal rules, avoiding pro-cyclical fiscal tightening will require that policymakers’ hands are not tied by overly pessimistic views on the development of potential output.
- Italian Labour Law e-Journal. Special Issue: Covid-19 and Labour Law. A Global Review (2020) nr. 15.
This special issue of the Italian Labour Law e-Journal intends to provide a systematic and informative overview on the measures set out by lawmakers and/or social partners in a number of countries of the world to address the impact on the Covid-19 emergency on working conditions and business operations. The aim is to understand which labour law norms and institutions and which workplace arrangements are being deployed in the different legal systems to tackle the global health crisis. Another aim is to find whether and to what extent the established body of laws is proving able to cope with the problems raised by the current extraordinary situation or whether, on the contrary, new special regulations are being introduced. The national reports may be subject to updating in case of major changes.
- Journal of European Integration. Special Issue: pandemic Politics and European Union responses (2020) nr 8. (Taylor & Francis Journals Complete)
- van Kolfschooten, Hannah ; de Ruijter, Anniek. COVID-19 and privacy in the European Union: A legal perspective on contact tracing // Contemporary Security Policy (2020) nr 3, lk. 478-491.
When disease becomes a threat to security, the balance between the need to fight the disease and obligation to protect the rights of individuals often changes. The COVID-19 crisis shows that the need for surveillance poses challenges to the right of privacy. We focus on the European Union (EU), which has a strong data protection regime yet requires its member states to exchange personal data gathered through contact tracing. While public authorities may limit the right to privacy in case of public health threats, the EU provides little guidance when such limitations are proportionate. To define standards, we analyze existing EU case law regarding national security measures. We conclude that on the proportionality of contact tracing in the EU it is difficult to reconcile public health measures and individual rights, but guidance can be taken from understandings of proportionality in the context of security, particularly in the current COVID-19 emergency.(Taylor & Francis Online)
- Luja, Raymond. EU Fiscal State Aid Rules and COVID-19: Will One Survive the Other? // EC Tax Review (2020) nr. 4, lk. 147 – 157.
In order to facilitate tax relief to deal with the ramifications of the Corona virus, the European Commission temporarily eased the EU’s state aid framework. This contribution will provide a first glance of some of the tax-related measures taken both within and outside of the scope of state aid rules. Their range is wide, from tax filing and payment deferrals to changes to personal and corporate income taxes, VAT and property taxes. Some Member States still struggle with the remaining requirements not to provide tax advantages (other than deferrals) to companies already in financial difficulty before the COVID-19 lockdowns and with handling fiscal years ending after 2020. As for umbrella aid schemes that do not yet specify which measures will be taken but just serve to get approval based on a certain budget, the author suggests to provide a block exemption to reduce the need for prior notification to the Commission. Once government efforts to deal with sudden income loss, liquidity and solvency issues move to stimulating economic recovery, other policy objectives (like the Green Deal) might also enter the equation when companies apply for financial support. (Kluwer Law Online)
- Robin-Olivier, Sophie. Free Movement of Workers in the Light of the COVID-19 Sanitary Crisis: From Restrictive Selection to Selective Mobility // European Papers (2020), lk. 613-619.
In a context of widespread border checks and border closures, the circulation of workers was not totally abolished: some workers, whose mobility was considered necessary, continued to benefit from free movement. The selection of the types of work mobility to be preserved, in the crisis, is the starting point of this contribution. After considering the most obvious, a "restrictive selection", the Insight suggests that selection can also constitute a way to encourage mobility, in the Union interest, and examines why "selective mobility" can strengthen free movement. (DOAJ: Directory of Open Access Journals)