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  • Riigikogu Toimetised nr 43, juuni 2021. Fookuses: koroonakriis.
    Riigikogu Toimetiste (RiTo) uus number avab koroonastatistika tagamaid, piirangute ja põhiõiguste vahekorda, uusi geeniuuringuid, karjaimmuunsust, vaktsiiniotsinguid kogu maailmas ning epideemiaid alates aegade algusest.
  • Euroopa Liidu Väljaannete Talitus Covid-19 teemalised väljaanded
  • Brendebach, Jonas ; Poiares Pessoa Maduro, Luis Miguel ; Tassinari, Fabrizio. The EU response to the COVID-19 pandemic : achieving relevance, mobilising solidarity and preparing for the future // European University Institute, 2020.
    On March 27th, 2020, the EUI’s School of Transnational Governance gathered eighteen reputed social scientists, public health experts, and policy makers in a virtual workshop to discuss the short and medium-term implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on the European Union (EU). The crisis’ impact already reverberates deeply and widely in the European political sphere, social fabric and economic architecture. In spite of health being an exclusive Member State competence, EU institutions have been asked to respond to the immediate health threat presented by the contagion and to foresee and address consequences for the European economy and key policy areas of the Union, from the monetary union to the free movement of people.
  • Carrera, Sergio ; Luk, Ngo Chun. In the Name of COVID-19. An Assessment of the Schengen Internal Border Controls and Travel Restrictions in the EU // CEPS (07.10.2020).
    This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, assesses the mobility restrictive measures adopted by the EU and its Member States in the fight against COVID-19. It examines the reintroduction of Schengen internal border controls and intra- and extra-EU travel restrictions. It assesses their compatibility with the Schengen Borders Code, including proportionality, non-discrimination, privacy and free movement. The research demonstrates that policy priorities have moved from a logic of containment to one characterized by a policing approach on intra-EU mobility giving priority to the use of police identity/health checks, interoperable databases and the electronic surveillance of every traveller. It concludes that Schengen is not in ‘crisis’. Instead there has been an ‘EU enforcement and evaluation gap’ of Member States compliance with EU rules in areas falling under EU competence.
  • EU crisis response in tackling Covid-19. Views from the member states (EPIN Report) // European Policy Institutes (EPIN), 2020
    The Covid-19 crisis has shown how difficult European cooperation can be, especially in policy areas where the EU has only a legal competence to support member states. At first, all member states were inward-looking in their reactions, focusing on unilaterally closuring borders and focusing on crisis management at home. European solidarity has largely been absent. Ultimately, however, the lockdown realities across Europe are quite similar.
    A new EPIN report assembles short and concise analyses from nineteen institutions from fifteen different countries – including the Austrian Society for European Politics – on the question how EU cooperation was perceived in the respective national context.
  • Hameleers, Michael ; Van Der Meer, Toni G. ; Brosius, Anna. Feeling “disinformed” lowers compliance with COVID-19 guidelines: evidence from the US, UK, Netherlands and Germany / Misinformation Review, May 2020.
    This study indicates that, during the first phase of the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in 2020, citizens from the US, UK, Netherlands, and Germany experienced relatively high levels of mis- and disinformation in their general information environment. We asked respondents to indicate the extent to which they experienced that information on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, COVID-19) was simply inaccurate (misinformation) or intentionally misleading (disinformation). Those who experienced misinformation were willing to seek further information and to comply with official guidelines. Individuals perceiving more disinformation – on the other hand – were less willing to seek additional information and reported lower willingness to comply with official guidelines.  
  • Kanter, Caroline ; Bohnet, Henri ; Galetti, Nino ; Hofmeister, Wilhelm. Europas Süden und das Corona-Hilfsprogramm der EU / Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (27.04.2020)
    Am 23. April haben sich die europäischen Staats- und Regierungschefs via Videokonferenz auf ein milliardenschweres Corona-Hilfspaket geeinigt. Darüber hinaus – so die gemeinsame Sichtweise – sei ein gemeinsames Konjunkturprogramm notwendig. Über die Ausgestaltung dieses Instruments herrscht derzeit jedoch noch Uneinigkeit zwischen den Mitgliedsstaaten. (Detaillierte Informationen hierzu liefert der aktuelle Ratsbericht des KAS-Europabüros). Im Vorfeld des Europäischen Rats waren vor allem im durch die Krise besonders betroffenen Süden Europas die möglichen Hilfsinstrumente politisch diskutiert worden. Wie wurden dort nun die Ergebnisse dieses EU-Gipfels von Politik und Gesellschaft aufgenommen?
  • Tarschys, Daniel. The long-term budget after COVID-19: The EU politicians’ guide to the galaxy / Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, May 2020.
    The long-term budget has been stable over time, hovering around 1 percent of GNI. Its core may remain in that neighbourhood, but the galaxy of satellites around it seems much more expansive. With an emerging mix of grants and loans following the COVID-19 crisis, we may soon see a long-term budget in the vicinity of 2 percent, argues Daniel Tarschys, senior advisor at Sieps and a former Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
  • Verhofstadt, Guy. The Union and COVID-19: Is there a future after failure? // European Policy Centre, 2020.
    Is there a link between governance systems and the ability to act? Could the EU do better in times of crisis? And is the right level of response national or transnational?
  • Vihriälä, Vesa ; Holmström, Bengt ; Korkman, Sixten ; Uusitalo, Roope. Talouspolitiikan strategia koronakriisissä/ Valtioneuvosto (8.05.2020)
    Raportissa esitetään arvio koronakriisin vaikutuksista ja toimenpiteistä, joilla Suomen taloudelle aiheutuvia vaurioita voidaan pienentää ja palauttaa Suomi kestävän kasvun, korkean työllisyyden ja kestävän julkisen talouden uralle.
  • Xaudiera, Sergi ; Cardenal, Ana S. Ibuprofen narratives in five European countries during the COVID-19 pandemic / Misinformation Review, July 2020.
    We follow the trajectory of the unverified story about the adverse effects of using Ibuprofen for treating the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on Twitter, across five European countries. Our findings suggest that the impact of misinformation1 is massive when credible sources (e.g., elected officials, mainstream media) participate in its propagation; yet, they also imply that crisis communication management has a local scope given the greater reach and impact of regional channels in the spread and countering of misinformation. These patterns reveal both the global and local dynamics involved in the spread of misinformation. However, they are based on Twitter data, which might cast doubt on their generalizability. We discuss these and other limitations of the study as well as some of their implications for future research in the closing section of this article. 
  • Youngs, Richard. Geopolitics and the Covid-19 pandemic: a distorted turn in EU external relations /  Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, June 2020.
    Recently, EU leaders have repeated the message that the Union needs to be more “geopolitical”. What does this mean? Richard Youngs, professor of International Relations, analyses this ambition by questioning its underlying assumptions. Without a modern and innovative form of geopolitics, he writes, the EU’s international identity risks becoming more uncertain and ambiguous – a risk that the Covid-19 pandemic is likely to reinforce. 




  • Attitudes on vaccination against Covid-19 / Flash Eurobarometer, June 2021. This Flash Eurobarometer survey conducted at the end of May 2021 shows that 75% agree that COVID-19 vaccines are the only way to end the pandemic. 69% are either already vaccinated, or eager to be vaccinated as soon as possible. 79% intend to get vaccinated sometime this year. However, there are significant variations among Member States and by age group, people under 45 being more hesitant than people above that age. On average, 70% think that the EU is playing a key role in ensuring access to COVID-19 vaccines in their country. A narrow majority of those who express a view are satisfied with the way the EU has handled the vaccination strategy (47% satisfied, 45% dissatisfied). Opinions on the way national governments have handled it are slightly more negative (46% satisfied, 49% dissatisfied).
  • Uncertainty/EU/hope. Public opinion in times of covid-19 / European Parliament, 2020.
    ‘Uncertainty’: This is the emotional status most commonly shared by European citizens during the Covid-19 pandemic. While 50% of respondents stated uncertainty best describes their mood, ‘hope’ already comes in second place with 41% of respondents across the 21 countries surveyed citing this feeling. The combination of uncertainty and hope is the overall theme for this survey’s results. A range of
    negative feelings dominated citizens’ emotions over the past weeks and months since the outbreak of the crisis. ‘Helplessness’ is cited by 29% of respondents, but ‘frustration’ (27%), ’fear’ (22%) and ‘anger’ (14%) also figure. At the same time, in addition to ‘hope’, respondents also report positive emotions such as ‘confidence’ (21%) and ‘helpfulness’ (14%). While the Covid-19 pandemic struck all EU Member States, its severity and consequences on social and economic life differed significantly. This survey clearly identifies overarching tendencies and common expectations, expressed by a majority of citizens across all countries. At the same time, the survey shines a spotlight on the significant differences among them. Keeping the national context of the pandemic’s impact in mind therefore is key to interpreting the survey results properly. Bearing this in mind, positive feelings tend to be most prevalent in Austria, Denmark, Romania, the Netherlands and Slovenia, while respondents are most likely to express negative emotions in Spain, Poland, France, Greece and Italy. At the time when the fieldwork was done at the end of April 2020, an absolute majority of respondents (53%) were more likely to say that the health benefits of restriction measures in their country offset the economic damage incurred. Only 41% of respondents said that the economic damage outweighs health benefits. Respondents are most likely to say that health benefits compensate for economic damage in France, Ireland and Romania, while the opposing view is held most strongly in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. Other surveys6, conducted at the national level throughout the crisis, suggest that a majority is gradually shifting over time from attaching greater importance to health benefits to accepting economic damage might be expected.

  • Public opinion monitoring in the time of COVID-19 / The EP and the expectations of European citizens, 2020.
    DG Communication’ Public Opinion Monitoring Unit is monitoring the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on public opinion within and beyond the European Union. This crisis and the measures taken on all levels to contain it will have significant implications on citizens’ perception and expectations with regard to the EU.