- European Commission. Commissioner responsible for trade (2019-2024) Phil Hogan
- Akman, M. Sait ; Evenett, Simon ; Low, Patrick. Catalyst? TTIP’s impact on the Rest / VOX, 2015.
Apparently a number of assumptions have been made in Brussels and Washington DC about how the rest of the world will react to the successful conclusion of a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). Many of the contributions to this new eBook identify alternatives for third countries that do not involve throwing themselves at the mercy of US and European trade negotiators. TTIP may not trigger the chain reaction that its advocates seek. (e-raamatu lugemiseks vajalik registreerimine portaali kasutajaks)
- Balfour, Rosa. Working With the Biden Administration: Opportunities for the EU / Carnegie Europe, 2021.
With U.S. President Joe Biden in office, the EU and the United States must find ways to repair the relationship and seek common ground from which to address the global shifts and challenges of the coming decades.
- Bowles, Edward. TTIP, the Revenant / European Centre for International Political Economy, 2017.
For those of you familiar with Michael Punke’s book ‘The Revenant’ (or screen portrayal of the same), the central character, played by Leonardo di Caprio, is mauled terribly by a grizzly bear, betrayed by his appointed protector and left for dead deep in woodland in frozen conditions. Against all the odds, he not only survives, but makes it back to the camp, where upon he tracks down and kills his betrayer – at which point the similarities with TTIP should end. TTIP was all but written off following the election of Donald Trump, having already endured severe mauling at the hands of anti-globalisation movements. But there are now signs that TTIP has crawled its way out of the woodland where it was left for dead, with quietly constructive noises seeping out of Washington and Berlin. The institutions in Brussels are playing down all talk of a renaissance at this stage, and the Advisory Group of which I am a nominal member has no plan to meet again. So far so sensible.
- Dullien, Sebastian. Trump’s poisoned TTIP chalice / European Council on Foreign Relations, 2017.
The prospect of reopening trade talks with the US puts the European Union in an invidious position.
- Fadinger, Harald. TTIP – eine Analyse aus europäischer Perspektive / Österreichische Gesellschaft für Europapolitik, 2015.
- Freudenstein, Roland ; Kennedy, Craig. A New Transatlantic Agenda IN FOCUS: Challenges and Opportunities in the Trump Era / Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies, 2017.
- Hamilton, Daniel S. ; Quinlan, Joseph P. The Transatlantic Economy 2020. Annual Survey of Jobs, Trade and Investment between the United States and Europe / Foreign Policy Institute, Johns Hopkins University SAIS, 2020.
This annual survey offers the most up-to-date picture of the dense economic relationship binding European countries to America’s 50 states. The survey consists of five chapters. Chapter One underscores how the transatlantic economy today is structurally sound yet buffeted by considerable political uncertainties. Chapter Two updates our basic framework for understanding the deeply integrated transatlantic economy via 'eight ties that bind.' Chapter Three explores the transatlantic digital economy, which in many ways has become the backbone of commercial connections across the Atlantic. Chapter Four offers an overview of European commercial ties with the United States, and Chapter Five an overview of U.S. commercial relations with Europe. The appended charts provide the most up-to-date information on European-sourced jobs, trade and investment with the 50 U.S. states, and U.S.-sourced jobs, trade and investment with the 28 member states of the European Union, as well as Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. Although the UK left the EU formally in early 2020, our data covers 2019, when the UK was still part of the EU.
- Hoekman, Bernard M. ; Sabel, Charles. Trade agreements, regulatory sovereignty and democratic legitimacy / EUI RSCAS Working Papers, 2017.
Governments increasingly are seeking to use bilateral and regional trade agreements to reduce the cost-increasing effects of differences in product market regulation. They also pursue regulatory cooperation independent of trade agreements. It is important to understand what is being done through bilateral or plurilateral mechanisms to address regulatory differences, and to identify what, if any, role trade agreements can play in supporting international regulatory cooperation. This paper reflects on experience to date in regulatory cooperation and the provisions of recent trade agreements involving advanced economies that have included regulatory cooperation. We argue for a re-thinking by trade officials of the modalities and design of trade negotiations and the incorporation of institutional mechanisms that draw on insights of experimentalist governance approaches to enhance the scope for international regulatory cooperation.
- Hummer, Waldemar. Die „Transatlantische Handels- und Investitionspartnerschaft“ (TTIP) zwischen der EU und den USA / Österreichische Gesellschaft für Europapolitik, 2014.
- Korteweg, Rem. Unfreezing TTIP: Why a transatlantic trade pact still makes strategic sense / Centre for European Reform, 2017.
- Lowe, Sam. On Brexit, TTIP and the City of London / CER Bulletin, 2018.
Beyond the specifics of the future relationship, in the short-to-medium-term a degree of honesty and humility is warranted. The EU line on financial services is not going to crack, and the member-states do not believe they need the City as much as the City believes they should. If the UK is unwilling to change its Brexit negotiating red lines, and in particular its plan to leave the single market, the only way for a UK-based financial institution to guarantee its continued ability to service EU-27 customers post-Brexit is to establish itself within the EU-27. And the EU is rolling out the red carpet.
- Schwartz, Chris. Between partnership and punitive tariffs: Prospects for a New U.S-E.U. Trade Agreement in the New Congress / Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, June 2019.
The United States has recommitted to negotiations with the European Union on a comprehensive trade agreement, but there is a very narrow path for completing a deal before the next U.S. national elections in 2020.
Reaching an agreement will likely mean dropping some controversial issues from consideration, especially the U.S. demand to negotiate broadly on agriculture; movement by the U.S. on steel and aluminum tariffs; and a commitment by the E.U. to toughen its stance on China. Even if negotiators can find common ground, winning Congressional approval for an agreement may be a challenge given the complex politics of trade among both Democrats and Republicans.
- Stopping CETA and TTIP will not stop globalisation / Jacques Delors Institute, 2016.
Beyond the debate raised by CETA and now by the victory of Donald Trump, a critic of free trade agreements, Elvire Fabry, Senior Researcher at the Jacques Delors Institute, calls for the analysis of new changes in the globalisation process to better understand the fears they inspire.
Publications of European Parliament:
Felbermayr, Gabriel. TTIP and Jobs / European Parliament: Directorate-General for Internal Policies of the Union, Ludwig Maximilian's University Munich and ifo Institute for Economic Research, 2020.
This Policy Department A study concludes that TTIP could lead to substantial reallocation of jobs between and within industries. As growing exporting firms pay higher wages than shrinking import-competing ones, average wages would go up. Employment effects are highly uncertain: they could be negative in the short run but positive in the long run. In any case, their magnitude is likely to be very small. Adjustment costs do not undo TTIP’s overall economic desirability, but they call for adequately funded trade adjustment programmes.
- Free and fair trade for all? / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2017.
With its strategy paper entitled ‘Trade for all’ in 2015, the European Commission launched an EU trade policy that focussed on values such as human rights, workers’ rights, environmental protection and sustainable development. The idea was that free trade should be fair for both consumers in Europe and for citizens elsewhere. This approach was pursued in bilateral trade negotiations and in legislative proposals on, for example, conflict minerals, dual-use goods or the investment court system. But by the end of 2016 the tenor of the debate on international trade had changed, shifting the focus to national interests and fairness for consumers and producers at home. The UK’s decision to withdraw from the EU and the election of President Trump in the US, together with the expiry of the clause recognising China’s non-market economy status, contributed to this shift. The European Parliament has played a crucial role in shaping the direction of EU trade policy. While its 2015 resolution on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) set the values-based trade agenda, its resolutions in 2016 and 2017 on China’s market economy status and global value chains reflected the shift in values. The European Commission was seeking to balance free and fair trade but new challenges lie ahead, notably in the EU’s neighbourhood: Russia, the Eastern Partnership, Turkey and the UK’s withdrawal from the EU.
- A guide to EU procedures for the conclusion of international trade agreements / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2016.
The European Union (EU) was the world’s biggest exporter and importer of goods and services in 2015, representing 32.51 % of global trade in goods and services. The USA and China, meanwhile, accounted for 12.01 % and 10.68 % respectively. The EU has been negotiating trade agreements since the 1970s, then as the European Communities. Over time it has diversified its trading partners, and is now negotiating trade agreements with partners from every continent. The content of trade agreements has also evolved as EU trade competences have developed. The EU is currently in the process of amending and modernising some of its older trade agreements and is working on some of the most ambitious trade agreements since its inception (such as the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with Canada and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) with the USA). The Lisbon Treaty modified both the EU’s competences in trade and the procedure for concluding trade agreements, giving a stronger role to the European Parliament. This briefing looks at how trade negotiations are conducted and concluded in the EU, and discusses some of the key issues in the current EU trade policy debate.
- EU-US negotiations on TTIP: A survey of current issues / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2016.
The negotiations on a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the EU and the USA aim at achieving a comprehensive trade agreement with renewed liberalisation efforts in trade, services and investments, while at the same time aiming at regulatory cooperation and rule-based trade. Since the completion of the 13th round of negotiations on TTIP in April 2016, the European Commission and the USA have been working to achieve substantial progress before the next round took place in July 2016. As those negotiations get under way, this in-depth analysis examined progress to date and looked at the various issues that were still outstanding.
- The EU’s Energy Diplomacy: Transatlantic and Foreign Policy Implications / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2016.
The mutual energy trade could expand if the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) were concluded successfully. The United States is also a crucial partner of the EU for transport security and the protection of critical energy infrastructure. Against this backdrop, this study analyses opportunities and challenges of transatlantic energy cooperation in a changing global energy landscape.
- TTIP and Labour Standards / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2016.
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will follow EU and US recent trade policy practice to include labour provisions. These could limit the risk that liberalisation results in social dumping and promote upward change. This European Parliament Policy Department A study concludes that the EU could take a precautionary stance and employ various instruments that increase the chances that TTIP will have positive social consequences. TTIP may combine the strengths of the EU and US approaches to labour provisions, while improving their weaknesses. More analysis of the social consequences of liberalisation and labour provisions might be stimulated and strong flanking measures at the EU and national level be foreseen.
- TTIP and jobs / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2016.
TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) could lead to substantial reallocation of jobs between and within industries, however the overall employment effects are uncertain. This European Parliament Policy Department A study provides the Employment and Social Affairs Committee of the Parliament with an analytical review of literature and calculations of the potential employment impact of TTIP with a view to sectors affected. It provides a snapshot of EU and US trade and labour markets, compares methodologies and results of ex-ante assessments and also uses information from relevant ex-post evaluations of other trade agreements.
- Role of the US Congress in trade agreements. The ‘Fast-Track’ procedure / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research, 2016
Since 1974, the United States Congress has several times enacted Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), defining the conditions and procedures for voting using a streamlined or expedited procedure, also known as the fast-track procedure, to pass implementing legislation in Congress for international trade agreements negotiated during a specific defined period of time. The 2015 TPA, passed in June 2015, contains the requirements and procedures for fast-track adoption of any international agreement entered into by the US before 1 July 2018 (with possible extension up to 1 July 2021) including any resulting from the ongoing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations.
- Investment Rules In Trade Agreements: Developments And Issues In Light Of The TTIP Debate / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2015.
EU foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks in the US amount to €1,651.6bn, and US FDI stocks in the EU to €1,685.5bn. Investment access and protection is critical to EU-US economic relations. Criticisms have been made on both sides of the Atlantic regarding the interpretation of some investment rules in free trade agreements (FTAs) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs), and their impact on the regulatory capacity of states. Both the US and the EU are revising these rules to ensure they are correctly interpreted.
- Financial Services in EU Trade Agreements / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2014.
This Policy Department A study for ECON covers rules on trade in financial services in preferential trade agreements (PTA), in view of current TTIP negotiations. The financial services sector is of strategic importance in trade policy. The EU has already obtained considerable PTA concessions, incl. new investor protection rights. Its PTAs also contain more developed disciplines on financial regulation, incl. prior comment obligations, data processing rules, prudential regulation and use of international standards.
- Civil Society’s Concerns about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2014.
When the EU and the US launched negotiations on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) in June 2013, civil society was invited to play ‘a constructive and engaged part in defining the content’ of this strategic deal. Interest in the TTIP has gone beyond its expected economic impact: the agreement has been seen by some as a way to strengthen the West’s weakening grip on the world economy, and by others as a tool for big multinationals to secure unfair advantages at the expense of the rest of society. Civil society groups have come forward with various conditions, demands (including stopping the negotiations) and concrete proposals – in most cases to ensure that the TTIP represents their interests.
- Overcoming Transatlantic differences on intellectual property: IPR and the TTIP negotiations / European Parliament: European Parliamentary Research Service, 2014.
Recent studies demonstrate the important contribution of intellectual property rights (IPR) to the American and EU economies. Royalties and licence fees based on IPR figure high among the exports of both, and applications, and grants, for IPR protection made by Europeans in the US and vice-versa represent an important share of the totals. The differences between the respective IPR systems are comparatively small, yet seen as hard to overcome. The negotiation of the EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) may present the opportunity for a step change in EU-US relations in respect of IPR.
- Reinforcing the transatlantic bonds / EuroparlTV (video 3.05.2018)
- TTIP for dummies ja TTIP’s regulatory maze – poliitikaportaali EurActive lingikogud
- ECIPE (European Centre for International Political Economy) : EU Trade Agreements
- European Council on Foreign Relations
- Centre of European Policy Studies
- TTIP explained - 9 videos in YouTube (EN, DE, FR)
- Steinberg, Federico. Juncker and Trump end the trade war and revive a watered-down version of TTIP / Elcano Royal Institute / Fundación Real Instituto Elcano (2.10.2018)
- Adriaensen, Johan. The future of EU trade negotiations: What has been learned from CETA and TTIP? / EuroppBlog (29.11.2017)
- Huhtanen, Tomi. Sectoral cooperation or how to get back on track after TTIP / Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies (21.02.2018)
- President Trump’s Trade And International Policies [What Think Tanks Are Thinking] / European Parliamentary Research Service Blog (3.09.2018)